Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Black History Month: A Medical Perspective: Selective Bibliography

Black History Month: A Medical Perspective - Exhibited February-March 1999 and February-March 2006

Books and Articles

 Please Note: Since the initial posting of these credits, some of the resources may no longer be available.

    1. Abram, Ruth J. "Send Us A Lady Physician": Women Doctors in America, 1835-1920. New York: Norton, 1985.
    2. Anonymous. "Not Alms But Equal Opportunity" [editorial]. Journal of the National Medical Association. 39(6):266-7, 1947.
    3. Anonymous. "North Carolina Physicians Refuse Limited Membership." Journal of the National Medical Association. 49(2):115, 1957.
    4. Ayanian, John Zaven. Black Health in Segregated Durham, 1900-1940. Durham, North Carolina, Duke University, 1982.
    5. Beardsley, Edward H. History of Neglect: Health Care for Blacks and Mill Workers in the Twentieth-Century South. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1987.
    6. Beardsley, EH. "Making Separate, Equal: Black Physicians and the Problems of Medical Segregation in the Pre-World War II South." Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 57(3):382-96, 1983.
    7. Beardsley, EH. "Good-bye to Jim Crow: The Desegregation of Southern Hospitals."Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 60:367-86, 1986.
    8. Bolden, Tonya. The Book of African-American Women: 150 Crusaders, Creators, and Uplifters. Holbrook, Mass.: Adams Media, 1996.
    9. Bousefield, MO. "An Account of Physicians of Color in the United States." Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 17:61-84, 1945.
    10. Boyd, Eddie L. Home Remedies and the Black Elderly: A Reference Manual for Health Care Providers. Ann Arbor: Institute of Gerontology and College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan, 1984.
    11. Bradley, Eugene H. "Health, Hospitals and the Negro." The Modern Hospital. 65(2):43-7, 1945.
    12. Bullough, Vern L., Church, Olga Maranjian, Stein, Alice P. American Nursing: A Biographical Dictionary. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1988.
    13. Carson, Ben. Gifted Hands: The Ben Carson Story. New York: HarperPaperbacks, 1990.
    14. Cobb, W. Montague. "William Augustus Hinton, M.D., 1883-." Journal of the National Medical Association. 49(6):427-8, 1949.
    15. Cobb, W. Montague. "Integration in Medicine: A National Need." Journal of the National Medical Association. 49(1):1-7, 1949.
    16. Cobb, W. Montague. The First Negro Medical Society: A History of the Medico-Chirurgical Society of the District of Columbia, 1884-1939. Washington, D.C., Associated Publishers, 1939.
    17. Cobb, W. "The Hospital Integration Story in Charlotte, North Carolina." Journal of the National Medical Association. 56:226-9, 1964.
    18. Coogan, Lee. Negroes for Medicine: Report of a Macy Conference. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, 1968.
    19. Cornely, Paul B. "Trends in Racial Integration in Hospitals in the United States." Journal of the National Medical Association. 49(1):8-10, 1949.
    20. Craft, PP. "Charles Drew: Dispelling the Myth." Southern Medical Journal. 85(12): 1236-40, 1246, 1992.
    21. Curtis, James L. Blacks, Medical Schools, and Society. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1971.
    22. Dowling, Harry F. City Hospitals: The Undercare of the Underprivileged. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1982.
    23. Dyson, Walter. Howard University, The Capstone of Negro Education, A History: 1867-1940. 1st ed. Washington, D.C., The Graduate School, Howard University, 1941.
    24. Elkins, WO. "A History of L. Richardson Memorial Hospital." North Carolina Medical Journal. 30(4):146-51, 1969.
    25. Epps, Charles H., Jr., Johnson, Davis G., Vaughan, Audrey L. African-American Medical Pioneers. Rockville, MD: Betz Pub. Co., 1994.
    26. Epps, Charles H., Jr., Johnson, Davis G., Vaughan, Audrey L. "Black Medical Pioneers: African-American "Firsts" in Academic and Organized MedicinePart One." Journal of the National Medical Association. 85(8):629-44, 1993.
    27. Epps, Charles H., Jr., Johnson, Davis G., Vaughan, Audrey L. "Black Medical Pioneers: African-American "Firsts" in Academic and Organized Medicine. Part Two." Journal of the National Medical Association. 85(9):703-20, 1993.
    28. Epps, Charles H., Jr., Johnson, Davis G., Vaughan, Audrey L. "Black Medical Pioneers: African-American "Firsts" in Academic and Organized Medicine. Part Three." Journal of the National Medical Association. 85(10):777-96, 1993.
    29. Falk, LA. "Black Abolitionist Doctors and Healers, 1810-1885." Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 54(2):258-72, 1990.
    30. Fishbein, Morris. A History of the American Medical Association, 1847 to 1947. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1947. p.80-81, 478.
    31. Fontenot, Wonda L. Secret Doctors: Ethnomedicine of African-Americans. Westport, Conn.: Bergin and Garvey, 1994.
    32. Freedmen's Hospital (Washington, D.C.). Freedmen's Hospital School of Nursing, Sixth and Bryant Streets, Washington, D.C. Announcement: School of Nursing ... Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1927.
    33. Gallman, Burnett W. "From Africa to South Carolina: A Brief Review of the Contributions of Africans and African-Americans to Medicine." Journal - South Carolina Medical Association. 84(5):249-55, 1988.
    34. Gamble, Vanessa Northington. Making A Place for Ourselves: The Black Hospital Movement, 1920-1945. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
    35. Gamble, Vanessa Northington. "The Provident Hospital Project: An Experiment in Race Relations and Medical Education." Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 65(4):457-75, 1991.
    36. Gamble, Vanessa Northington. The Negro Hospital Renaissance: The Black Hospital Movement, 1920-1940. [Philadelphia, PA.? s.n.], 1988, Ó 1987.
    37. Gamble, Vanessa Northington. The Black Community Hospital. New York: Garland Pub. Co., 1989.
    38. Gamble, Vanessa Northington. Germs Have No Color Lines: Blacks and American Medicine, 1900-1940. New York: Garland, 1989.
    39. Haller, JS. "The Negro and the Southern Physician: A Study of Medical and Racial Attitudes, 1800-1860." Medical History. 16(3):238-53, 1972.
    40. Halperin, EC. "Desegregation of Hospitals and Medical Societies in North Carolina."New England Journal of Medicine. 318(1):58-63, 1988.
    41. Halperin, EC. "The North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company, Dr. Clyde Henry Donnell, and the Health Education of Blacks." North Carolina Medical Journal. 56(11):570-4, 1995.
    42. Hansen, Axel C. "Black Americans in Medicine." Journal of the National Medical Association. 76(7):693-5, 1984.
    43. Harris, M. J. (1996). David Jones Peck, MD: a dream denied. Journal of the National Medical Association, 88(9), 600–604.
    44. Hayden, Robert C. 11 African-American Doctors. New York: Twenty-First Century Books, 1992.
    45. Henderson, Vernon, Organ, Claude H., Jr. Noteworthy Publications By African-American Surgeons: In Commemoration of the 100th Anniversary of the National Medical Association, 1895-1995. [S.l.: s.n.], 1995.
    46. Hine, Darlene Clark. "Co-Laborers in the Work of the Lord: Nineteenth-Century Black Women Physicians." IN: "Send Us A Lady Physician": Women Doctors in America, 1835-1920. New York: Norton, 1985., p.114-120.
    47. Hine, Darlene Clark. Black Women in White: Racial Conflict and Cooperation in the Nursing Profession, 1890-1950. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 1989.
    48. Hinton, William A. Syphilis and Its Treatment. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1936.
    49. Hirtle, Peter B. Blacks in American Medicine: A Bibliography of Secondary Sources, 1970-1987. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, 1988.
    50. Holt, Thomas C. A Special Mission: The Story of Freedmen's Hospital, 1862-1962. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1975.
    51. Jerrido, MJ. "In Recognition of ... Early Black Women Physicians." Women & Health. 5(3):1-3, 1980.
    52. Jones, James H. Bad Blood: The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment. New York, N.Y.: Free Press; London: Collier Macmillan, 1981.
    53. Julius Rosenwald Fund. Negro Hospitals: A Compilation of Available Statistics. Chicago: Julius Rosenwald Fund, 1931.
    54. Kaufman, Martin, ed. Dictionary of American Nursing Biography. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988.
    55. Klein, Aaron E. The Hidden Contributors: Black Scientists and Inventors in America. 1st. ed. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1971.
    56. Kirkland, James, et al. Herbal and Magical Medicine: Traditional Healing Today. Durham: Duke University Press, 1992.
    57. Krieger, N. "Shades of Differences: Theoretical Underpinnings of the Medical Controversy on Black/White Differences in the United States, 1830-1870." International Journal of Health Services. 17(2):259-78, 1897.
    58. Lamb, Daniel Smith, ed. Howard University Medical Department, Washington, D.C. A Historical, Biographical and Statistical Souvenir. Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press, 1971, 1900a.
    59. Lawlah, John W. "George Cleveland Hall, 1864-1930: A Profile." Journal of the National Medical Association. 46(3):207-10, 1954. [This reference added 7/15/02]
    60. Lincoln Hospital (Durham, N.C.). Charter of the Trustees of Lincoln Hospital, as Amended: and By-laws, Rules and Regulations of the Trustees of Lincoln Hospital. Durham, N.C.: [s.n.], 1948.
    61. Link, Eugene P. "Civil Rights Activities of Three Great Negro Physicians (1840-1940)."Journal of Negro History. 52(3):169-84, 1967.
    62. Logan, Rayford Whittingham. Howard University: The First Hundred Years, 1867-1967. New York: New York University Press, 1969, Ó 1968.
    63. Love, Spencie. One Blood: The Charles R. Drew Legend and the Trauma of Race in America. Thesis (Ph.D.), Duke University, 1990.
    64. Love, Spencie. One Blood: The Death and Resurrection of Charles R. Drew. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 1996.
    65. Martin, Maxine Smith. "Dr. Lucy Hughes Brown (1863-1911). A Pioneer African American Physician." Journal - South Carolina Medical Association. 89(1):15-9, 1993.
    66. Maund, Alfred. The Untouchables: The Meaning of Segregation in Hospitals. New Orleans: Southern Conference on Education Fund, 1952.
    67. Maynard, Aubre de L. Surgeons to the Poor: The Harlem Hospital Story. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1978.
    68. Mayo, Selz C. Negro Hospital and Medical Care Facilities in North Carolina. Raleigh: North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, State College Station, 1945.
    69. Miller, Helen S. Mary Eliza Mahoney, 1845-1926: America's First Black Professional Nurse: A Historical Perspective. Atlanta, GA: Wright Pub. Co., 1986.
    70. Morais, Herbert M. The History of the Afro-American in Medicine. Cornwells Heights, PA: Publishers Agency, Inc., 1976.
    71. Morton, Julia F. Folk Remedies of the Low Country. Miami, FL: E.A. Seeman Publishing, 1974.
    72. Muench, Sarah. "N.C.'s First Black Surgeon Dies at Age 86." Herald-Sun newspaper, pages A1 and A6, July, 2004.
    73. Munger, Claude W., et al. Report of a Study of the Lincoln Hospital, Durham, North Carolina. [Durham, N.C., sn.], 1947.
    74. Odegaard, Charles. Minorities in Medicine: From Receptive Passivity to Positive Action, 1966-76. New York: Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation, 1977.
    75. Organ, Claude H., Kosiba, Margaret M. A Century of Black Surgeons: The U.S.A. Experience. Norman, Oklahoma: Transcript Press, 1987.
    76. Payne-Jackson, Arvilla. Folk Wisdom and Mother Wit: John Lee, an African American Herbal Healer. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1993.
    77. Pitrone, Jean Maddern. Trailblazer: Negro Nurse in the American Red Cross. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1969.
    78. Prichard, RW. "Winston-Salem's Black Hospitals Prior To 1930." Journal of the National Medical Association. 68(3):246-9, 1976.
    79. Puckett, Newbell Niles. Folk Beliefs of the Southern Negro. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1926.
    80. Reitzes, Dietrich C. Negroes and Medicine. Cambridge, Mass.: Published for the Commonwealth Fund by Harvard University Press, 1958.
    81. Rice, Mitchell, Jones, Woodrow, Jr. Public Policy and the Black Hospital: From Slavery to Segregation to Integration. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.
    82. Reynolds, P. Preston. Watts Hospital of Durham, North Carolina, 1895-1976: Keeping the Doors Open. Durham, NC: Fund for the Advancement of Science and Mathematics Education in North Carolina, North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics, 1991.
    83. Roman, Charles Victor. Meharry Medical College: A History. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1972.
    84. Sammons, Vivian Ovelton. Blacks in Science and Medicine. New York: Hemisphere Pub. Corp., 1990.
    85. Savitt, Todd L. "'A Journal of Our Own': The Medical and Surgical Observer at the Beginnings of an African-American Medical Profession in Late 19th-Century America. Part Two." Journal of the National Medical Association. 88(2):115-22, 1996.
    86. Savitt, Todd L. "Entering a White Profession: Black Physicians in the New South, 1880-1920." Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 61(4):507-40, 1987.
    87. Savitt, Todd L. "Lincoln University Medical Department: A Forgotten 19th Century Black Medical School." Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences. 40(1):42-65, 1985.
    88. Seham, M. "Discrimination Against Negroes in Hospitals." New England Journal of Medicine. 271:940-3, 1964.
    89. Shaffner, Louis deS. "Racial Integration in the North Carolina Medical Society." North Carolina Medical Journal. 51(1):43-6, 1990.
    90. Simons, J. Hume. The Planter's Guide, and Family Book of Medicine: For the Instruction and Use of Planters, Families, Country People, and All Others Who May Be Out of the Reach of Physicians, Or Unable to Employ Them. Charleston, S.C.: M'Carter & Allen, 1848.
    91. Smith, Margaret Charles. Listen To Me Good: The Life Story of an Alabama Midwife.Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1996.
    92. Snow, Loudell F. Walkin' Over Medicine. Boulder: Westview Press, 1993.
    93. Sokoloff, Natalie J. Black Women and White Women in the Professions: Occupational Segregation By Race and Gender, 1960-1980. New York: Routledge, 1992.
    94. Solomon, Jack, Solomon, Olivia. Cracklin Bread and Asfidity: Folk Recipes and Remedies. University, Ala.: The University of Alabama Press, 1979.
    95. Staupers, Mabel Keaton. No Time For Prejudice: A Story of the Integration of Negroes in Nursing in the United States. New York: Macmillan, 1961.
    96. Steiner, Paul E. Medical History of a Civil War Regiment: Disease in the Sixty-Fifth United States Colored Infantry. Clayton, MO: Institute of Civil War Studies, 1977.
    97. Summerville, James. Educating Black Doctors: A History of Meharry Medical College. University, Ala.: University of Alabama Press, 1983.
    98. Surles, Kathyrn. Health Status of Blacks in North Carolina. Raleigh, N.C.: Dept. of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, State Center for Health and Environmental Statistics, 1993.
    99. Thompson, LE. "Two Strikes: The Role of Black Women in Medicine Before 1920."Pharos of Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society. 58(1):12-5, 1995.
    100. Thoms, Adah B. Pathfinders: A History of the Progress of Colored Graduate Nurses. New York: Kay Print. House, 1929.
    101. Tuskegee Syphilis Study Ad Hoc Advisory Panel. Final Report. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Public Health Service, 1973.
    102. Watson, Wilbur H. Black Folk Medicine: The Therapeutic Significance of Faith and Trust. New Brunswick: Transaction Books, 1984.
    103. Wattleton, Faye. Life On the Line. New York: Ballantine Books, 1996.
    104. Watts, Charles D., Scott, Frank W. "Lincoln Hospital of Durham, North Carolina: A Short History." Journal of the National Medical Association. 57(2):177-83, 1965.
    105. Wesley, Nathaniel, Jr. Struggle for Survival: Black Community Hospitals, 1961 to 1988. Thesis (FACHE)--American College of Healthcare Executives, 1989.
    106. Wesley, Nathaniel, Jr. 1986 Black Hospitals Listing and Selected Commentary: Tradition, Competition, and the Management of Change. Washington, D.C.: School of Business and Public Administration, Howard University, 1986.
    107. Wesley, Nathaniel, Jr. A Report on Black Hospitals: 1998 Update and Selected Commentary. A Comprehensive Report on the Status of Black Hospitals. Tallahassee, FL: NRW Publications, 1998.
    108. Williams, Richard Allen. Textbook of Black-Related Diseases. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975.
    109. Woodson, Carter G. The Negro Professional Man and the Community: With Special Emphasis on the Physician and the Lawyer. Washington, D.C.: The Association for the Study of Negro Life and History, 1934.
    110. Wright, Charles H. The National Medical Association Demands Equal Opportunity: Nothing More, Nothing Less. Southfield, Mich.: Charro Book Co., Inc., 1995.
    111. Wyche, Mary Lewis. The History of Nursing in North Carolina. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1938.