This guide provides information and links to additional resources to help you conduct a thorough literature search to discover ways to reduce, refine, or replace the use of research animals.
Peruse the guide to:
Consider contacting a librarian to discuss your search. A librarian can help you choose the best databases to search, develop a search strategy, save your searches, and more.
Although it is NOT necessary to search for animal alternatives for:
mice, rats, fish, invertebrates, reptiles, amphibians or birds
it is still recommended that you consider the 3 R's--outlined below--in planning your research.
For additional information, refer to Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition and AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals.
Searching for animal alternatives is typically guided by the "3 R's":
First described in The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique by Russell and Burch (1959).
The following is a list of some, but not all of the painful and/or distressing procedures you will be required to conduct a literature search for to seek methods of reduction, refinement, and replacement, and document in your protocols: