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Animals in Research: Searching Alternatives : Getting Started


Welcome to the Library's guide Animals in Research: Searching Alternatives. This guide provides information and links to additional resources to help you conduct a thorough literature search to discover ways to reduce, refine, or replace the use of research animals. 

Use the tabs above to

Most importantly, consider scheduling a one-on-one consultation with a librarian to discuss your search.  A librarian can help you choose the best databases to search, develop a search strategy, save your searches, and more.

AWIC Training

In the Fall of 2014, AWIC trainers visited Duke and held several training session on Meeting the Information Requirements of the Animal Welfare Act.

Slides from the Meeting the Information Requirements of the Animal Welfare Act training are available here.  A set of additional slides are available here.

The 3 R's

Searching for animal alternatives is typically guided by the "3 R's", first described in The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique by Russell and Burch (1959). The 3 R’s are:

ReductionMinimize the number of animals used to smallest number needed to obtain statistically relevant results.
Refinement – Use techniques that reduce the incidence or severity of pain and/or distress in animals.
ReplacementSubstitution of non-animal methods or material or a lower species that may be less sensitive to pain and distress.

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