The United States Animal Welfare Act (AWA) regulations require that Principal Investigators consider alternatives to procedures that may cause more than momentary or slight pain or distress to animals. This guide provides information and links to additional resources to help you conduct a thorough literature search to discover ways to reduce, refine, or replace the use of USDA-regulated species in research. You may find more information in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA).
Peruse this guide to:
Consider contacting a librarian to discuss your search. A librarian can help you choose the best databases to search, develop a search strategy, save your searches, and more.
Mousebase@Duke is a user-populated catalog of research mouse model strains used and maintained by Duke investigators, enabling investigators to access existing models for increased research efficiency.
Although it is NOT necessary to search for animal alternatives for:
mice, rats, fish, invertebrates, reptiles, amphibians or birds
it is still recommended that you consider the 3 R's--outlined below--in planning your research.
Searching for animal alternatives is typically guided by the "3 R's":
First described in The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique by Russell and Burch (1959).
Below are some, but not all of the painful and/or distressing procedures you will be required to conduct a literature search for in order to seek methods of reduction, refinement, and replacement, and document in your protocols: