A well-developed and answerable question is the foundation for any systematic review. This process involves:
PICO is a helpful framework for clinical research questions, but may not be the best for other types of research questions. Did you know there are at least 25 other question frameworks besides variations of PICO? Frameworks like PEO, SPIDER, SPICE, and ECLIPS can help you formulate a focused research question. The table and example below were created by the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) Libraries.
The PEO question framework is useful for qualitative research topics. PEO questions identify three concepts: population, exposure, and outcome.
Research question: What are the daily living experiences of mothers with postnatal depression?
|Population||Who is my question focused on?||mothers|
|Exposure||What is the issue I am interested in?||postnatal depression|
|Outcome||What, in relation to the issue, do I want to examine?||daily living experiences|
The SPIDER question framework is useful for qualitative or mixed methods research topics focused on "samples" rather than populations. SPIDER questions identify five concepts: sample, phenomenon of interest, design, evaluation, and research type.
Research question: What are the experiences of young parents in attendance at antenatal education classes?
|Sample||Who is the group of people being studied?||young parents|
|What are the reasons for behavior and decisions?||attendance at antenatal education classes|
|Design||How has the research been collected (e.g., interview, survey)?||interviews|
|Evaluation||What is the outcome being impacted?||
|Research type||What type of research (qualitative or mixed methods)?||qualitative studies|
The SPICE question framework is useful for qualitative research topics evaluating the outcomes of a service, project, or intervention. SPICE questions identify five concepts: setting, perspective, intervention/exposure/interest, comparison, and evaluation.
Research question: For teenagers in South Carolina, what is the effect of provision of Quit Kits to support smoking cessation on number of successful attempts to give up smoking compared to no support ("cold turkey")?
|Setting||Setting is the context for the question (where).||South Carolina|
|Perspective||Perspective is the users, potential users, or stakeholders of the service (for whom).||teenagers|
|Intervention / Exposure||Intervention is the action taken for the users, potential users, or stakeholders (what).||provision of Quit Kits to support smoking cessation|
|Comparison||Comparison is the alternative actions or outcomes (compared to what).||
no support or "cold turkey"
|Evaluation||Evaluation is the result or measurement that will determine the success of the intervention (what is the result, how well).||number of successful attempts to give up smoking with Quit Kits compared to number of successful attempts with no support|
The ECLIPSE framework is useful for qualitative research topics investigating the outcomes of a policy or service. ECLIPSE questions identify six concepts: expectation, client group, location, impact, professionals, and service.
Research question: How can I increase access to wireless internet for hospital patients?
|Expectation||What are you looking to improve or change? What is the information going to be used for?||to increase access to wireless internet in the hospital|
|Client group||Who is the service or policy aimed at?||patients and families|
|Location||Where is the service or policy located?||hospitals|
|Impact||What is the change in service or policy that the researcher is investigating?||clients have easy access to free internet|
|Professionals||Who is involved in providing or improving the service or policy?||IT, hospital administration|
|Service||What kind of service or policy is this?||provision of free wireless internet to patients|