*Available in the Duke Medical Center Library - Please Note: Since the initial posting of these credits, some of the resources may no longer be available.
*Abram, Ruth J. "Send Us A Lady Physician": Women Doctors in America, 1835-1920. New York: Norton, 1985.
*Anonymous. "Not Alms But Equal Opportunity" [editorial]. Journal of the National Medical Association. 39(6):266-7, 1947.
*Anonymous. "North Carolina Physicians Refuse Limited Membership." Journal of the National Medical Association. 49(2):115, 1957.
Ayanian, John Zaven. Black Health in Segregated Durham, 1900-1940. Durham, North Carolina, Duke University, 1982.
*Beardsley, Edward H. History of Neglect: Health Care for Blacks and Mill Workers in the Twentieth-Century South. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1987.
*Beardsley, EH. "Making Separate, Equal: Black Physicians and the Problems of Medical Segregation in the Pre-World War II South." Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 57(3):382-96, 1983.
*Beardsley, EH. "Good-bye to Jim Crow: The Desegregation of Southern Hospitals."Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 60:367-86, 1986.
Bolden, Tonya. The Book of African-American Women: 150 Crusaders, Creators, and Uplifters. Holbrook, Mass.: Adams Media, 1996.
*Bousefield, MO. "An Account of Physicians of Color in the United States." Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 17:61-84, 1945.
Boyd, Eddie L. Home Remedies and the Black Elderly: A Reference Manual for Health Care Providers. Ann Arbor: Institute of Gerontology and College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan, 1984.
*Bradley, Eugene H. "Health, Hospitals and the Negro." The Modern Hospital. 65(2):43-7, 1945.
*Bullough, Vern L., Church, Olga Maranjian, Stein, Alice P. American Nursing: A Biographical Dictionary. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1988.
Carson, Ben. Gifted Hands: The Ben Carson Story. New York: HarperPaperbacks, 1990.
*Cobb, W. Montague. "William Augustus Hinton, M.D., 1883-." Journal of the National Medical Association. 49(6):427-8, 1949.
*Cobb, W. Montague. "Integration in Medicine: A National Need." Journal of the National Medical Association. 49(1):1-7, 1949.
*Cobb, W. Montague. The First Negro Medical Society: A History of the Medico-Chirurgical Society of the District of Columbia, 1884-1939. Washington, D.C., Associated Publishers, 1939.
*Cobb, W. "The Hospital Integration Story in Charlotte, North Carolina." Journal of the National Medical Association. 56:226-9, 1964.
*Coogan, Lee. Negroes for Medicine: Report of a Macy Conference. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, 1968.
*Cornely, Paul B. "Trends in Racial Integration in Hospitals in the United States." Journal of the National Medical Association. 49(1):8-10, 1949.
*Craft, PP. "Charles Drew: Dispelling the Myth." Southern Medical Journal. 85(12): 1236-40, 1246, 1992.
*Curtis, James L. Blacks, Medical Schools, and Society. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1971.
Dowling, Harry F. City Hospitals: The Undercare of the Underprivileged. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1982.
Dyson, Walter. Howard University, The Capstone of Negro Education, A History: 1867-1940. 1st ed. Washington, D.C., The Graduate School, Howard University, 1941.
*Elkins, WO. "A History of L. Richardson Memorial Hospital." North Carolina Medical Journal. 30(4):146-51, 1969.
*Epps, Charles H., Jr., Johnson, Davis G., Vaughan, Audrey L. African-American Medical Pioneers. Rockville, MD: Betz Pub. Co., 1994.
*Epps, Charles H., Jr., Johnson, Davis G., Vaughan, Audrey L. "Black Medical Pioneers: African-American "Firsts" in Academic and Organized Medicine. Part One." Journal of the National Medical Association. 85(8):629-44, 1993.
*Epps, Charles H., Jr., Johnson, Davis G., Vaughan, Audrey L. "Black Medical Pioneers: African-American "Firsts" in Academic and Organized Medicine. Part Two." Journal of the National Medical Association. 85(9):703-20, 1993.
*Epps, Charles H., Jr., Johnson, Davis G., Vaughan, Audrey L. "Black Medical Pioneers: African-American "Firsts" in Academic and Organized Medicine. Part Three." Journal of the National Medical Association. 85(10):777-96, 1993.
*Falk, LA. "Black Abolitionist Doctors and Healers, 1810-1885." Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 54(2):258-72, 1990.
*Fishbein, Morris. A History of the American Medical Association, 1847 to 1947. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1947. p.80-81, 478.
*Fontenot, Wonda L. Secret Doctors: Ethnomedicine of African-Americans. Westport, Conn.: Bergin and Garvey, 1994.
Freedmen's Hospital (Washington, D.C.). Freedmen's Hospital School of Nursing, Sixth and Bryant Streets, Washington, D.C. Announcement: School of Nursing ... Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1927.
*Gallman, Burnett W. "From Africa to South Carolina: A Brief Review of the Contributions of Africans and African-Americans to Medicine." Journal - South Carolina Medical Association. 84(5):249-55, 1988.
*Gamble, Vanessa Northington. Making A Place for Ourselves: The Black Hospital Movement, 1920-1945. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
*Gamble, Vanessa Northington. "The Provident Hospital Project: An Experiment in Race Relations and Medical Education." Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 65(4):457-75, 1991.
Gamble, Vanessa Northington. The Negro Hospital Renaissance: The Black Hospital Movement, 1920-1940. [Philadelphia, PA.? s.n.], 1988, Ó 1987.
Gamble, Vanessa Northington. The Black Community Hospital. New York: Garland Pub. Co., 1989.
Gamble, Vanessa Northington. Germs Have No Color Lines: Blacks and American Medicine, 1900-1940. New York: Garland, 1989.
*Haller, JS. "The Negro and the Southern Physician: A Study of Medical and Racial Attitudes, 1800-1860." Medical History. 16(3):238-53, 1972.
*Halperin, EC. "Desegregation of Hospitals and Medical Societies in North Carolina."New England Journal of Medicine. 318(1):58-63, 1988.
*Halperin, EC. "The North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company, Dr. Clyde Henry Donnell, and the Health Education of Blacks." North Carolina Medical Journal. 56(11):570-4, 1995.
*Hansen, Axel C. "Black Americans in Medicine." Journal of the National Medical Association. 76(7):693-5, 1984.
*Hayden, Robert C. 11 African-American Doctors. New York: Twenty-First Century Books, 1992.
*Henderson, Vernon, Organ, Claude H., Jr. Noteworthy Publications By African-American Surgeons: In Commemoration of the 100th Anniversary of the National Medical Association, 1895-1995. [S.l.: s.n.], 1995.
*Hine, Darlene Clark. "Co-Laborers in the Work of the Lord: Nineteenth-Century Black Women Physicians." IN: "Send Us A Lady Physician": Women Doctors in America, 1835-1920. New York: Norton, 1985., p.114-120.
Hine, Darlene Clark. Black Women in White: Racial Conflict and Cooperation in the Nursing Profession, 1890-1950. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 1989.
Hinton, William A. Syphilis and Its Treatment. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1936.
*Hirtle, Peter B. Blacks in American Medicine: A Bibliography of Secondary Sources, 1970-1987. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, 1988.
Holt, Thomas C. A Special Mission: The Story of Freedmen's Hospital, 1862-1962. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1975.
*Jerrido, MJ. "In Recognition of ... Early Black Women Physicians." Women & Health. 5(3):1-3, 1980.
*Jones, James H. Bad Blood: The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment. New York, N.Y.: Free Press; London: Collier Macmillan, 1981.
*Julius Rosenwald Fund. Negro Hospitals: A Compilation of Available Statistics. Chicago: Julius Rosenwald Fund, 1931.
*Kaufman, Martin, ed. Dictionary of American Nursing Biography. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988.
Klein, Aaron E. The Hidden Contributors: Black Scientists and Inventors in America. 1st. ed. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1971.
*Kirkland, James, et al. Herbal and Magical Medicine: Traditional Healing Today. Durham: Duke University Press, 1992.
*Krieger, N. "Shades of Differences: Theoretical Underpinnings of the Medical Controversy on Black/White Differences in the United States, 1830-1870." International Journal of Health Services. 17(2):259-78, 1897.
*Lamb, Daniel Smith, ed. Howard University Medical Department, Washington, D.C. A Historical, Biographical and Statistical Souvenir. Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press, 1971, 1900a.
*Lawlah, John W. "George Cleveland Hall, 1864-1930: A Profile." Journal of the National Medical Association. 46(3):207-10, 1954. [This reference added 7/15/02]
*Lincoln Hospital (Durham, N.C.). Charter of the Trustees of Lincoln Hospital, as Amended: and By-laws, Rules and Regulations of the Trustees of Lincoln Hospital. Durham, N.C.: [s.n.], 1948.
Link, Eugene P. "Civil Rights Activities of Three Great Negro Physicians (1840-1940)."Journal of Negro History. 52(3):169-84, 1967.
Logan, Rayford Whittingham. Howard University: The First Hundred Years, 1867-1967. New York: New York University Press, 1969, Ó 1968.
Love, Spencie. One Blood: The Charles R. Drew Legend and the Trauma of Race in America. Thesis (Ph.D.), Duke University, 1990.
*Love, Spencie. One Blood: The Death and Resurrection of Charles R. Drew. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 1996.
*Martin, Maxine Smith. "Dr. Lucy Hughes Brown (1863-1911). A Pioneer African American Physician." Journal - South Carolina Medical Association. 89(1):15-9, 1993.
Maund, Alfred. The Untouchables: The Meaning of Segregation in Hospitals. New Orleans: Southern Conference on Education Fund, 1952.
*Maynard, Aubre de L. Surgeons to the Poor: The Harlem Hospital Story. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1978.
*Mayo, Selz C. Negro Hospital and Medical Care Facilities in North Carolina. Raleigh: North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, State College Station, 1945.
*Miller, Helen S. Mary Eliza Mahoney, 1845-1926: America's First Black Professional Nurse: A Historical Perspective. Atlanta, GA: Wright Pub. Co., 1986.
*Morais, Herbert M. The History of the Afro-American in Medicine. Cornwells Heights, PA: Publishers Agency, Inc., 1976.
*Morton, Julia F. Folk Remedies of the Low Country. Miami, FL: E.A. Seeman Publishing, 1974.
Muench, Sarah. "N.C.'s First Black Surgeon Dies at Age 86." Herald-Sun newspaper, pages A1 and A6, July, 2004.
Munger, Claude W., et al. Report of a Study of the Lincoln Hospital, Durham, North Carolina. [Durham, N.C., sn.], 1947.
*Odegaard, Charles. Minorities in Medicine: From Receptive Passivity to Positive Action, 1966-76. New York: Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation, 1977.
*Organ, Claude H., Kosiba, Margaret M. A Century of Black Surgeons: The U.S.A. Experience. Norman, Oklahoma: Transcript Press, 1987.
Payne-Jackson, Arvilla. Folk Wisdom and Mother Wit: John Lee, an African American Herbal Healer. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1993.
Pitrone, Jean Maddern. Trailblazer: Negro Nurse in the American Red Cross. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1969.
*Prichard, RW. "Winston-Salem's Black Hospitals Prior To 1930." Journal of the National Medical Association. 68(3):246-9, 1976.
*Puckett, Newbell Niles. Folk Beliefs of the Southern Negro. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1926.
Reitzes, Dietrich C. Negroes and Medicine. Cambridge, Mass.: Published for the Commonwealth Fund by Harvard University Press, 1958.
Rice, Mitchell, Jones, Woodrow, Jr. Public Policy and the Black Hospital: From Slavery to Segregation to Integration. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.
*Reynolds, P. Preston. Watts Hospital of Durham, North Carolina, 1895-1976: Keeping the Doors Open. Durham, NC: Fund for the Advancement of Science and Mathematics Education in North Carolina, North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics, 1991.
*Roman, Charles Victor. Meharry Medical College: A History. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1972.
*Sammons, Vivian Ovelton. Blacks in Science and Medicine. New York: Hemisphere Pub. Corp., 1990.
*Savitt, Todd L. "'A Journal of Our Own': The Medical and Surgical Observer at the Beginnings of an African-American Medical Profession in Late 19th-Century America. Part Two." Journal of the National Medical Association. 88(2):115-22, 1996.
*Savitt, Todd L. "Entering a White Profession: Black Physicians in the New South, 1880-1920." Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 61(4):507-40, 1987.
*Savitt, Todd L. "Lincoln University Medical Department: A Forgotten 19th Century Black Medical School." Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences. 40(1):42-65, 1985.
*Seham, M. "Discrimination Against Negroes in Hospitals." New England Journal of Medicine. 271:940-3, 1964.
*Shaffner, Louis deS. "Racial Integration in the North Carolina Medical Society." North Carolina Medical Journal. 51(1):43-6, 1990.
*Simons, J. Hume. The Planter's Guide, and Family Book of Medicine: For the Instruction and Use of Planters, Families, Country People, and All Others Who May Be Out of the Reach of Physicians, Or Unable to Employ Them. Charleston, S.C.: M'Carter & Allen, 1848.
*Smith, Margaret Charles. Listen To Me Good: The Life Story of an Alabama Midwife.Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1996.
Snow, Loudell F. Walkin' Over Medicine. Boulder: Westview Press, 1993.
Sokoloff, Natalie J. Black Women and White Women in the Professions: Occupational Segregation By Race and Gender, 1960-1980. New York: Routledge, 1992.
Solomon, Jack, Solomon, Olivia. Cracklin Bread and Asfidity: Folk Recipes and Remedies. University, Ala.: The University of Alabama Press, 1979.
*Staupers, Mabel Keaton. No Time For Prejudice: A Story of the Integration of Negroes in Nursing in the United States. New York: Macmillan, 1961.
*Steiner, Paul E. Medical History of a Civil War Regiment: Disease in the Sixty-Fifth United States Colored Infantry. Clayton, MO: Institute of Civil War Studies, 1977.
*Summerville, James. Educating Black Doctors: A History of Meharry Medical College. University, Ala.: University of Alabama Press, 1983.
*Surles, Kathyrn. Health Status of Blacks in North Carolina. Raleigh, N.C.: Dept. of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, State Center for Health and Environmental Statistics, 1993.
*Thompson, LE. "Two Strikes: The Role of Black Women in Medicine Before 1920."Pharos of Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society. 58(1):12-5, 1995.
*Thoms, Adah B. Pathfinders: A History of the Progress of Colored Graduate Nurses. New York: Kay Print. House, 1929.
*Tuskegee Syphilis Study Ad Hoc Advisory Panel. Final Report. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Public Health Service, 1973.
Watson, Wilbur H. Black Folk Medicine: The Therapeutic Significance of Faith and Trust. New Brunswick: Transaction Books, 1984.
*Wattleton, Faye. Life On the Line. New York: Ballantine Books, 1996.
*Watts, Charles D., Scott, Frank W. "Lincoln Hospital of Durham, North Carolina: A Short History." Journal of the National Medical Association. 57(2):177-83, 1965.
*Wesley, Nathaniel, Jr. Struggle for Survival: Black Community Hospitals, 1961 to 1988. Thesis (FACHE)--American College of Healthcare Executives, 1989.
*Wesley, Nathaniel, Jr. 1986 Black Hospitals Listing and Selected Commentary: Tradition, Competition, and the Management of Change. Washington, D.C.: School of Business and Public Administration, Howard University, 1986.
*Wesley, Nathaniel, Jr. A Report on Black Hospitals: 1998 Update and Selected Commentary. A Comprehensive Report on the Status of Black Hospitals. Tallahassee, FL: NRW Publications, 1998.
*Williams, Richard Allen. Textbook of Black-Related Diseases. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975.
Woodson, Carter G. The Negro Professional Man and the Community: With Special Emphasis on the Physician and the Lawyer. Washington, D.C.: The Association for the Study of Negro Life and History, 1934.
*Wright, Charles H. The National Medical Association Demands Equal Opportunity: Nothing More, Nothing Less. Southfield, Mich.: Charro Book Co., Inc., 1995.
*Wyche, Mary Lewis. The History of Nursing in North Carolina. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1938.