Capers IV, Q., Clinchot, D., McDougle, L., & Greenwald, A. G. (2017). Implicit racial bias in medical school admissions. Academic Medicine, 92(3), 365-369. Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27680316/
Nixon-Cave K, Meadows J. Developing Cultural Competence in DPT Students: Is There a Best Practice Educational Model to Facilitate Students Achieving Cultural Competence? Journal of Physical Therapy Education. 2014;28(1):37-38. doi:10.1097/00001416-2014100
Singal, J. (2017, January 11). Psychology’s favorite tool for measuring racism isn’t up to the job. Retrieved October 7, 2019, from The Cut website: https://www.thecut.com/2017/01/psychologys-racism-measuring-tool-isnt-up-to-the-job.html
Doris, K. P., Laura Niemi,John M. (n.d.). How to think about “implicit bias.” Retrieved October 7, 2019, from Scientific American website: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-to-think-about-implicit-bias/
Lewis, D., & Paulson, E. (2017). Proceedings of the Diversity and Inclusion Innovation Forum: Unconscious Bias in Academic Medicine. Retrieved from https://diversity.ucsf.edu/sites/diversity.ucsf.edu/files/Unconscious_Bias_Proccedings_AAMC.pdf
This is a document that is a great overview of bias at multiple levels within academic medicine. For those that are looking for interventions, see Chapter 8.
Systematic reviews of studies related to the Implicit Association test
Maina, I. W., Belton, T. D., Ginzberg, S., Singh, A., & Johnson, T. J. (2018). A decade of studying implicit racial/ethnic bias in healthcare providers using the implicit association test. Social Science & Medicine, 199, 219-229. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28532892
This article discusses the obesity epidemic in the United States and in a way addresses the bias we have against individuals who may be overweight or obese. It touches on things Dr. Parente introduced in class.
Phelan, S. M., Burke, S. E., Hardeman, R. R., White, R. O., Przedworski, J., Dovidio, J. F., ... & Yeazel, M. W. (2017). Medical school factors associated with changes in implicit and explicit bias against gay and lesbian people among 3492 graduating medical students. Journal of general internal medicine, 32(11), 1193-1201. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28766125
This 2017 study examined sexual orientation bias in 4732 first year medical students with an eye towards interventions
a. Burke, S. E., Dovidio, J. F., Przedworski, J. M., Hardeman, R. R., Perry, S. P., Phelan, S. M., ... & Van Ryn, M. (2015). Do contact and empathy mitigate bias against gay and lesbian people among heterosexual medical students? A report from medical student CHANGES. Academic medicine: journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges, 90(5), 645. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25674910
van Ryn, M., Hardeman, R., Phelan, S. M., Dovidio, J. F., Herrin, J., Burke, S. E., ... & Przedworski, J. M. (2015). Medical school experiences associated with change in implicit racial bias among 3547 students: a medical student CHANGES study report. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 30(12), 1748-1756. Retrieved from (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26129779)
Phelan, S. M., Dovidio, J. F., Puhl, R. M., Burgess, D. J., Nelson, D. B., Yeazel, M. W., ... & Van Ryn, M. (2014). Implicit and explicit weight bias in a national sample of 4,732 medical students: the medical student CHANGES study. Obesity, 22(4), 1201-1208. Retrieved from (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24375989)